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Developmental Psychology

MODELS OF DEVELOPMENT

    Discuss the fundamental concern of developmental psychology.

    Provide examples of the following three dimensions of development: growth, differentiation, and orderly progression.

CHILDREN AS "LITTLE ADULTS"

    Give examples of the nineteenth century belief that children were just small versions of adults.

DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN

    Discuss the effect on the study of developmental psychology of the perspective that children are qualitatively different from adults.

CONTINUOUS VERSUS DISCRETE CHANGE

    Explain the difference between continuous and discrete models of development.

    Provide an example of discrete development.

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT

BEFORE BIRTH: THE PRENATAL PERIOD

    Discuss the three stages of prenatal development.

    Define teratogen

    Discuss the cause of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and its effects.

PHYSICAL CHANGES IN INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD

Motor Development

    Define reflexes.

    Discuss the purpose of reflexes.

    Give examples of reflexes.

    Define developmental milestones.

    Discuss the implications of developmental milestones for the assessment of normal physical development.

The Growing Brain

    Discuss brain growth during infancy and childhood.

The Developing Senses

Vision

    Discuss infant visual acuity.

    Define visual cliff.

    Discuss infant preferences for certain visual stimuli.

Hearing

    Discuss infant auditory ability and preferences.

Taste and odor

    Give examples of infant taste preference.

    Give examples of infant olfaction.

PHYSICAL CHANGES IN ADOLESCENCE

    Define adolescence.

    Discuss the role of sex hormones in adolescent development.

    Discuss the relationships among brain development, impulse control, and adolescent risk-taking behavior.

PHYSICAL CHANGES IN ADULTHOOD

    Discuss the widely held belief that adulthood is a period of decline in physical capacity.

    Define menopause.

PHYSICAL CHANGES IN LATE ADULTHOOD

    Compare life span today to life span at the turn of the last century.

Theories of Aging

The Aging Brain

    Discuss neuronal death and aging.

Dementia

    Define dementia.

    Define Alzheimer's disease.

    Describe the general course of Alzheimer's disease and its likely outcome.

    Discuss risk factors of Alzheimer's disease.

    Define stroke.

The Aging Senses

Vision

    Explain why so many senior citizens are farsighted.

Hearing

    Discuss why three quarters of people over 75 years old have significant hearing impairment.

Taste and odor

    Discuss the relation between age-related declines in olfaction and the subjective experience of flavor.

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

THE COGNITIVE COMPETENCIES OF INFANTS

    Discuss the four types of activities of newborns.

    Discuss the developing cognitive capacities of infants.

PIAGET AND THE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD

Assimilation and Accommodation

    Define schemata and provide an example.

    Define assimilation and provide an example.

    Define accommodation and provide an example.

Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development

Sensorimotor stage

    Discuss why Piaget labeled his first stage of development the sensorimotor stage.

    Define object permanence.

Preoperational stage

    Discuss the relation of language to mental representation and symbolic capability.

    Define the principle of conservation.

    Discuss why children in the preoperational stage are unable to master conservation tasks. Give an example.

    Discuss Piaget's notion that children in the preoperational stage are egocentric.

Concrete operations

    Discuss the difference between concrete operational and preoperational thought.

    Provide an example of the ability of concrete operational children to employ abstract conceptual categories.

Formal operations

    Discuss the characteristics of formal operational thought.

Piaget's Stages Reconsidered

    Discuss evidence that suggests limitations to Piaget's theory.

Was Piaget Wrong?

    Discuss why Piaget can be considered both right and wrong about cognitive development.

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENCE

Adolescent Development

    Define adolescent egocentrism and the concept of personal fable.

Moral Reasoning

Kohlberg's model

    Discuss the relationship between moral reasoning and cognitive development.

Criticisms of Kohlberg's model

    Discuss research findings and criticism related to Kohlberg's theory.

AGING AND COGNITION

    Discuss the difference between longitudinal and cross-sectional research designs.

    Define cohort effect.

    Discuss research findings concerning cognition and age from longitudinal and cross-sectional studies.

    Discuss the difference between crystallized and fluid intelligence.

    Define wisdom.

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

ATTACHMENT: THE FOUNDATION

Studying Attachment

    Define attachment.

    Discuss Mary Ainsworth's Strange Situation test.

    Discuss the three attachment styles Mary Ainsworth identified in her research.

Implications for Later Development

    Discuss the implications for later social and emotional development for securely attached children.

    Discuss the implications for later development of extensive participation in day care.

Developing Attachment

    Discuss the instinct view of attachment formation.

    Explain how the research findings of Harry Harlow and his colleagues contradict the reinforcement explanation of attachment.

    Discuss the relationship between temperament and the parent-child relationship during infancy.

THE ORIGINS OF IDENTITY AND THE SELF-CONCEPT

    Define self-concept.

    Discuss assessment of infant sense of self.

    Discuss the ages at which developmental milestones in self-concept appear.

Describing the Self

    Compare self-conceptions of children and adolescents.

    Determine if there are cross-cultural differences in the way individuals respond to the McGuire "Who am I?" instrument.

Social Changes in Adolescence

    Define identity crisis.

    Define cliques.

    Discuss research findings concerning the popular belief that adolescence is a time of "storm and stress".

Social Development in Adulthood

    Discuss recent changes in American cultural norms that have blurred the distinction between adolescence and adulthood.

    Discuss fluctuations in marriage satisfaction over time.

    Discuss current factors for divorce in contrast to factors for divorce in the 1940s.

    Define mid-life crisis.

    Discuss the research findings about mid-life crisis.

PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OVER THE LIFE SPAN

    Discuss the rationale behind Erikson's eight-stage model of psychosocial development.

Trust vs. Mistrust

    Discuss the first stage of psychosocial development, Trust vs. Mistrust.

Autonomy vs. Doubt

    Discuss the second stage of psychosocial development, Autonomy vs. Doubt.

Initiative vs. Guilt

    Discuss the third stage of psychosocial development, Initiative vs. Guilt.

Industry vs. Inferiority

    Discuss the fourth stage of psychosocial development, Industry vs. Inferiority.

Identity vs. Role Confusion

    Discuss the fifth stage of psychosocial development, Identity vs. Role Confusion.

Intimacy vs. Isolation

    Discuss the sixth stage of psychosocial development, Intimacy vs. Isolation.

Generativity vs. Stagnation

    Discuss the seventh stage of psychosocial development, Generativity vs. Stagnation.

Integrity vs. Despair

    Discuss the eighth and final stage of psychosocial development, Integrity vs. Despair.

Erikson's Theory in Review

    Discuss researchers' agreement and disagreement with Erikson's psychosocial model of development.