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Developmental Psychology

  1. Prior to the twentieth century, artists generally portrayed children as miniature adults.

    a. True
    b. False

  2. Much of the early work in developmental psychology focused on

    a. middle-aged adults.
    b. senior citizens.
    c. children.
    d. development across the life span.

  3. Continuous development is to discrete development as

    a. abrupt is to smooth.
    b. gradual is to distinct.
    c. broken is to complete.
    d. chain is to rope.

  4. If children are not exposed to language during infancy, the odds of developing fully fluent adult language are slim. Infancy is an example of a ________ _________ for language development:

    a. critical period
    b. premature period
    c. non-critical period
    d. rudimentary junction

  5. With respect to development, differentiation refers to

    a. a process by which physical structures become more similar over time.
    b. more complex structures arising from simpler structures.
    c. change in the size of physical structures.
    d. the static nature of neural development.

  1. Prenatal development progresses through the three following stages (in order from conception to birth):

    a. embryonic, germinal, and fetal
    b. fetal, germinal, and embryonic
    c. germinal, embryonic, and fetal
    d. germinal, fetal, and embryonic

  2. The Moro reflex persists throughout the life span.

    a. True
    b. False

  3. All infants walk by themselves by 13 months.

    a. True
    b. False

  4. The human brain is ____% of the adult brain at 5-6 years of age.

    a. 50
    b. 25
    c. 90
    d. 60

  5. At birth, the neonate's sense of hearing is generally less well-developed than vision.

    a. True
    b. False

  1. Rapid changes during adolescence, known as "growth spurts," are regulated by increased production of two hormones: ___________ in females and ___________ in males.

    a. testosterone; estrogen
    b. adrenaline; noradrenaline
    c. human growth hormone; thyroxin
    d. estrogen; testosterone

  2. Adulthood can generally be viewed as a period of _____ _____ in physical and sensory abilities.

    a. gradual decline
    b. rapid decline
    c. rapid increase
    d. no change

  3. It is predicted that by the year 2030, the largest group of Americans will be those

    a. under 65.
    b. between 18 and 45.
    c. under 18.
    d. over 65.

  4. Which of the following is not one of the processes gerontologists suggest contribute to the physical decline seen with aging?

    a. cellular garbage
    b. reduced reaction times
    c. endocrine clocks
    d. wear and tear

  5. Dementia is an inevitable consequence of aging.

    a. True
    b. False

  1. Infants initially sleep on average three hours to every hour of wakefulness.

    a. True
    b. False

  2. Assimilation is to accommodation as

    a. alteration is to absorption.
    b. absorption is to alteration.
    c. different is to similar.
    d. dishabituation is to habituation.

  3. Habituation is an indication of familiarity.

    a. True
    b. False

  4. According to Piaget, conservation emerges during which stage?

    a. preoperations
    b. formal operations
    c. concrete operations
    d. sensorimotor

  5. The major quality that distinguishes formal operational thought from thought at previous stages is

    a. the ability to categorize objects.
    b. the inability to solve conservation problems.
    c. the ability to reason abstractly.
    d. the ability to solve mathematical word problems.

  1. Personal fable refers to

    a. a story written by Aesop when he was an adolescent.
    b. a view that one's own perspective is new and fresh.
    c. Kohlberg's second level of moral reasoning.
    d. another term for abstract reasoning.

  2. "Oh my gosh, I got the hugest pimple on my forehead! I can't go to school like this!" This frantic complaint by an adolescent is an example of

    a. adolescent egocentrism.
    b. inductive reasoning.
    c. object permanence.
    d. risk-taking behavior.

    For the next three items, match the level with the statement that best exemplifies moral reasoning at that level.

  3. Preconventional level

    a. I didn't steal the pen because stealing is against the law.
    b. I wrote on the wall during recess because no one was around to get me in trouble.
    c. I put myself in the line of fire because I believe hunting deer is just wrong.

  4. Conventional level

    a. I didn't steal the pen because stealing is against the law.
    b. I wrote on the wall during recess because no one was around to get me in trouble.
    c. I put myself in the line of fire because I believe hunting deer is just wrong.

  5. Postconventional level

    a. I didn't steal the pen because stealing is against the law.
    b. I wrote on the wall during recess because no one was around to get me in trouble.
    c. I put myself in the line of fire because I believe hunting deer is just wrong.

  1. Cohort effect refers to

    a. the problem of selectivity in longitudinal studies due to dropouts.
    b. failure to assign participants randomly to experimental and control groups.
    c. experiences people in an age group share that are independent of age-related development.
    d. oversampling of individuals from underrepresented groups for statistical purposes.

  2. Researchers Paul Baltes and U. Staudinger found that younger individuals may have just as much wisdom as their elders in particular areas if they have greater domain-related

    a. income.
    b. social support.
    c. experience.
    d. optimism.

  3. Longitudinal is to cross-sectional as

    a. different is to same.
    b. cheap is to expensive.
    c. same is to different.
    d. contemporary is to historic.

  4. Reciting a poem is an example of

    a. fluid intelligence.
    b. cohort effect.
    c. wisdom.
    d. crystallized intelligence.

  5. Researchers have found that fluid intelligence is more susceptible to the effects of aging than crystallized intelligence.

    a. True
    b. False

  1. Between the ages of 6 months and 18 months, infants become distressed when their mother depart or leave them with strangers. This behavior is known as

    a. strange situation.
    b. separation anxiety.
    c. critical period.
    d. Ainsworth effect.

  2. When their mothers returned after a brief absence, these infants did not seek out their mothers, ignoring them and continuing to play instead. Ainsworth labeled this attachment style

    a. secure attachment.
    b. resistant attachment.
    c. avoidant attachment.
    d. disorganized attachment.

  3. When Harry Harlow and colleagues offered infant rhesus monkeys the choice between a surrogate mother made of metal wire with a nipple for feeding and another made of foam rubber padding covered with soft fabric but without a nipple, the monkeys chose the latter. Which theory of attachment does this finding most contradict?

    a. instinct theory
    b. comfort theory
    c. sensitive responding
    d. reinforcement

  4. Children characterized as "difficult" are more likely to be securely attached than children characterized as "easy."

    a. True
    b. False

  5. Currently __% of children spend time with caregivers besides their parents.

    a. 25
    b. 54
    c. 75
    d. 81

  1. Researchers studying infants have found that self-concept is present at birth.

    a. True
    b. False

  2. Researchers have found that when asked to describe themselves, Asian children generally mention

    a. distinguishing features.
    b. their reflection in the mirror as if it were another person.
    c. social roles and relationships.
    d. nothing; they remain quiet out of respect for the researcher.

  3. Suicide is

    a. the leading cause of death in adolescence.
    b. not a concern in this age group.
    c. the sixth leading cause of death in adolescence.
    d. the third leading cause of death in adolescence.

  4. All of the following blur the border between adolescence and adulthood in American society except

    a. older children are more likely to return to live at home with their parents.
    b. the influence of religion.
    c. men and women are waiting longer to marry and have children.
    d. people are taking longer to complete their education.

  5. Eighty percent of those who get divorced report fearing they made the wrong decision.

    a. True
    b. False