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Fundamentals of Sound contains several figures that attempt to show how something, such as a longitudinal wave, changes in time, by a series of figures, each changed slightly from the previous. Examples are Figures 1-1 and 1-2. It is easier to see what is going on in time by watching the real thing, or at least a simulation of it. Such simulations, called animations, are what we present here. To see an animation associated with a figure in the book, click on the figure number below.

Chapter 1:

Figure 1-1.   Transverse wave motion.
Figure 1-2.   Longitudinal wave motion.
Figure 1-16. Reflection from a fixed end
Figure 1-17. Reflection from a loose end.
Figure 1-19. Constructive interference.
Figure 1-20. Destructive interference.


Chapter 2:

Figure 2-2. Formation of a standing wave.

Chapter 4:

A movie of the Tacoma Narrows bridge oscillations caused by resonance is available here. The bridge's vibration modes were excited by a strong wind. The bridge collapsed soon after the events shown here.

Chapter 7:

Figure 7-15. Motion of a square wave.


Chapter 10:

Figure 10-6. Longitudinal pulse on a chain of masses and springs.


Chapter 12:

Figure 12-10. Traveling wave on the basilar membrane.


Animations can be found on many other sites. Some of the most useful are the following:

Transverse and longitudinal waves

Medium motion in a transverse traveling wave

Sinusoidal water wave spreading from a center.

What is a wave? Longitudinal and transverse pulses

Superposition of waves. Two pulses meeting, constructive and destructive
interference, beats, formation of a standing wave.

Frequency spectrum of a wave shape

Longitudinal and Transverse Sinusoidal Wave Motion, Water waves

Formation of a standing wave


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