In
which of the following situations is work being done according to the
physics definition of work?
a) The parachutist ultimately falls at constant terminal velocity after an initial acceleration. Earth is exerting the force of gravity on the parachutist over the distance he moves, so that gravity is definitely doing work. After the parachutist reaches terminal velocity the air resistance matches the force of gravity (but in the opposite direction) and his potential energy is being converted via the air resistance into thermal energy of the air rather than additional kinetic energy. b) Your lifting exerted a force that opposed the force of gravity. The force acted through a distance and so you did work on the box. c) Because the force exerted by your arms was in the vertical direction, but your motion was horizontal, the force did not act through any distance (it was not in the direction of your motion), so that no work was done.
____________________________________ A
diver comes off a diving board. What type of energy does she have at
the highest point in her dive?
Either c) or d) depending on how you perceived the diver's flight. See the two possible trajectories in the figure below. In the A trajectory the diver goes almost straight up before she starts down. If we assume she is not spinning at the top, then she has no velocity—she has stopped momentarily and she would have only potential energy. If she were spinning, she would have both kinetic energy (of spin motion) and potential energy at the top of trajectory A; the answer for A must be c). Of course at the top of A, she is accelerating and gravity will soon convert her potential energy into kinetic energy. In trajectory B, she is still going forward at the highest point of her dive because she initially jumped forward as well as up. At that point she has both kinetic energy and potential energy. If she were spinning at that point, she would have even more kinetic energy. In this case the answer would be d).
____________________________________ Which
of the two objects in the following comparisons has more energy, and
what type of energy is it?
a) The butterfly. The fluttering butterfly has kinetic energy, as well as potential energy due to its height off the ground. The parked truck has neither kinetic nor potential enery. (If the truck were parked on a hill it would have potential energy.) b)
The balloon and passengers. Both objects have kinetic energy. One can
compare the kinetic energy. A baseball weighs about 1/3 pound and has
mass we will denote as c) The vase. The vase on the table has some potential energy. The box on the floor, while more massive, has no height and so no potential energy.
____________________________________ A musician playing a bass drum hits the drum softly, generating a pressure wave of amplitude A. A little later, the musician hits the drum very hard, generating a pressure wave having amplitude 2.5A. How much louder would the second sound be compared to the first?
c)
6.25. Loudness depends on amplitude squared. Thus the second sound is
(2.5) |

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